In his book Irresistible, exploring Behavioural Addiction, Adam Alter comes across a fascinating insight.
Four and a half hours is the time it takes for the average marathon runner to complete the 26.2 mile course. Then at either end of the scale you have elite marathon runners completing the course in as little over two hours (Kenya's Eluid Kipchoge currently holds the world record with a mind bending time of 2 hours 1 minute and 39 seconds which he set in Berlin in September 2018) while the slowest walkers can spend 6 - 10 hours on the course.
A small group finish under the three hour mark with slower times becoming more common until you hit the four hour mark.
If you were to plot the finishing times on a graph you would expect to see something like this...
But according to Alter that's not what you find. In 2014 behavioural scientist mapped out the finishing times of ten million marathon runners and this is actually what it looked like...
Alter states that if you focus on the milestones that arrive every half hour (the thick black bars) you will see a dip after each milestone. Potentially there are several things happening here.
Some marathon times are more significant milestones than others. The compelling power of goals are such that running a sub four hour marathon is more desirable than running it in four hours and 1 minute. Runners somehow dig deep into inner reserves of energy as they strive to beat the milestones (this is true of the faster and slower milestones too).
The flip side is that if you're slightly off the four hour mark, the next significant milestone is four hours and thirty minutes. So what difference does it make if you've run it in four hours and three minutes of four hours and fifteen? (hence the slight dip after the thick bars, and numbers pick up again towards the milestones).
When you are demotivated, it's easy to slip into a negative spiral, or simply hold on to your energy reserves (why waste them?) as what's the point of wrecking yourself further if you have missed your target? Such is the compelling power of goals.
This got me thinking. It's well documented that the primary motivations for human actions are the seeking or avoidance of pleasure and pain. When it comes to goal setting, if we are not careful then our avoidance of pain (in this case failure) can negatively influence our commitment and our actions. Let me give you an example.
Let's say your goal is to lose a stone in weight by March. The New Year comes, you are full of enthusiasm, and ready to take action. You get off to a great start, throwing out "bad" food and stocking the fridge with free range organic goodness. We join a gym and nail going three to four times a week.
So far so good right?
Then life happens.
Our work commitments get hectic, social engagements begin to fill our diary, the odd treat begins to creep back in our diet, which then becomes a regular feature. Frustrated, we renew our commitment with vigour. We still make it to the gym, but this time just not as often.
Our weight loss begins to slow down. Cue the subtle panic.
It's now late February. The March goal looms over use like a dark cloud in the back of our mind. Just like the marathon runners who are off the 4 hour mile pace, we begin to become acutely aware that we are probably not going to make it. Each time we don't make it to the gym, and that treat sneaks back in our diet, we feel like a failure.
This is not a good look. It's certainly not empowering.
We spin our wheels going through the motions, but deep down not believing that we can achieve that weight loss. That icky feeling of failure grips us at our core, and who want's to feel like a constant failure right? That's a pretty poor return on investment for all your efforts.
At some point the emotional pangs begin to erode our sense of self esteem, which gets too much. We do what seems to be the logical thing, stop doing what is causing us so much pain. So we abandon the nutrition and fitness plan." F*ck it!" we cry! Sounds familiar right?
So where am I going with this?
Pretty simple really. Let me explain....
People often remark on my strength and my fitness. On any given day in the year I should be able to,
These are my fitness standards. These standards also provide a solid base for me to get ready for competition, but if I am not getting ready for a competition, then I only have to maintain this level. If I am not competing, then I do not need to go over and above this standard, and can focus my time and energies elsewhere.
These fitness standards are my base level - a set point. When you stop to think about it, you have standards in different areas of your life too.
The fundamental difference between a goal and a standard is that a goal is event orientated. It is a specific objective that you aim to achieve at some point in the future. The gratification, or reward is delayed (or not experienced if you fail). Once the goal is achieved we often lapse back (think yo-yo dieting, people who want to become multi-millionaires then blow all their money - you get the idea).
A standard is not a one off event. It is something that is sustained. Gratification is not delayed, the benefits occurs in the here and now. Rather than it being something that you work towards (like a goal) think of it more like a baseline that you do not allow yourself to fall below.
When you are applying for a new job, I'm sure there is a certain wage that you will not entertain working for less than. Even if the job is amazing - if wages are not at a certain level you will not apply. There may be a salary that you are aiming for (a goal), but that base level salary is not something you aim for, it's a standard.
The same is true of your relationships, there is a certain level of communication, intimacy and behaviour that you will accept, and anything less than this is unacceptable. Again, it's not a goal, it's your relationship standard. The same is true for your standard of living too no doubt.
I'm sure there is a standard of accommodation, or even quality of food that you have right? Holding a standard is a very different psychology from a goal (which we'll explore later). We all have standards in different areas, yet we often fail to look at how we can transfer this principle to all areas of our lives.
While I was always clear on my health and fitness standards, as well as my relationship standards, it wasn't until I read Code of The Extraordinary Mind, by the founder of Mind Valley Vishen Lakhiani, did I fully appreciate the possibility of practically applying standards (he calls them "set points") across different areas of my life, or indeed why they can be more powerful than goals.
A set point (like a standard) is a level of performance that you do not allow yourself to slip below. Remember goals are event based - they are one off.
Now when you have a set point (in any area) you will need to take a look at how effective your current systems for living are, and whether they support your set points. Remember, unlike goals, your set points are non-negotiable.
Identify which areas in your life you would like to have set points (Code of The Extraordinary Mind outline 12 such areas). Determine your set points for each, then test and correct if you are off the mark. If you are unsure, this is where hiring a coach can often come in useful (especially if you've had the same New Years resolutions for more than a year!).
I'm not saying that goals are not valid. I think they can be useful. But did you know that according to Adam Alter author of Irresistible, prior to 1950's goal pursuit was absent from English language books?
While goals have been around since life began, what has changed is how much of our lives are driven by goal pursuit. Whereas before, goals were mostly about some aspect of survival, the concept of setting one goal after another (relentless perfectionism) is quite new.
Alter goes on to explain that for some, goal setting itself can be a form of behavioural addiction - which can have a negative impact.
In my experience as a Coach, problems can also occur when you have no standards and set goals. If success is a habit, think of standards as a firm foundation which to launch your attempt at goals.
Now, you may or may not achieve your goal with out a firm foundation, but the probability of you achieving it is far greater if you already have a solid foundation.
So this year I invite you to ask yourself not "What goal do I want to achieve?" but rather, "What's my standard?"
It's no secret that there are some bold claims around Intermittent Fasting (IF). Much of it is bro-science, but there is also extensive research supporting it's use.
But the real question is, "Why on earth would you want to do it?"
Decades of research has high-lighted that sustained calorie under consumption (60 - 80% of daily intake) can have significant health benefits and can delay the onset of many age related diseases.
According to Harvard Education, prolonged very low calorie diets can cause physiological changes within your body that causes it to adapt to the reduction in calories, and preventing further weight loss from happening, so you'll want to use it intelligently.
How it works
Common methods consist of fasting on alternate days for the whole day (with a specific frequency per week), or during a set time frame (I chose the latter). Here are some examples,
How I did it
I opted for Time Restricted Feeding (TRF), simply because it is simple, easy to execute and fitted in with my lifestyle. I find the common mistake is people choose a version of IF that doesn't quite match their lifestyle, so they give up before achieving any of the benefits.
Initially my window for eating was 4pm - 9pm, I struggled to get my calorie intake of 3,170kcal - 3,635kcal, so I adjusted my time frame to
3pm - 9pm
Here's What I found..
Before I had started (IF) I had noticed my weight had crept up to 107kg, and I was not happy with the changes in my body, especially as the additional weight hadn't materialised into improvement in performance.
At competition I come in at 105kg and my usual walking around weight is 100kg - 103kg (a weight I naturally sit at when eating healthy and staying active).
I found the first 3 - 4 days extremely challenging, both mentally and physically. The hunger pangs were strong, and brain fog ensued as my body began to regulate my blood sugar levels through different mechanisms.
But I began to enjoy the mental challenge, feeling a sense of achievement knowing I had the discipline to do it despite the mental and physical discomfort. Also the physical hunger reminded me of my boxing days, and tapped into that mentality. My mind soon became sharper and as the days went on, it was these times of fasting that were my most productive work wise.
I adjusted my eating window so that I could get sufficient calories in, as prior to that it was a struggle. Unlike most forms of IF I didn't aim to restrict my calories (as essentially that's how the weight loss happens), it happened as a natural process of becoming full prior to going to sleep and having a shorter time frame to get the calories in.
My weight began to drop a bit too rapidly, so after the first week I began to track my calorie intake and ensure that I was at least hitting the 2,900kcal - 3,200kcal mark. So far, as of writing this article my weight has stabilised at 104.5kg, with no decrease in strength - which is pretty cool.
I'm no stranger to Intermittent Fasting. I first did it many years ago when I was full on carnivore, and I decided to try The Warrior Diet. This time around was the first time I had done IF on a plant based diet, this means zero animal products, and to be honest this time was a lot more nutrient dense, so I'm guessing that's partially why my energy levels were not as depleted
I did make adjustments to optimise my training though. Strength sessions were either the first part of the day, or in the afternoon, just prior to breaking my fast, and I kept all MetCon or HIIT training in the afternoon (so I could break my fast just after and optimise nutrient uptake).
I'm pleased with results so far, both physically and mentally, and intend to continue with this experiment for three months, providing no negative effects occur.
What the research says
According to a systematic review of over forty studies, IF is effective for weight loss, with a typical drop in 7 - 11lbs over ten weeks. The size of participants groups in the studies varied, as too did the IF protocol that was used.
While drop out rates were 0 - 65%, when compared to calorie restriction group there was no significant difference. So it's worth considering the IF protocol you use and making sure it's sustainable for you.
A randomised control trial (RCT) that followed 100 obese participants for one year did not find any significant weight loss to those that were on a calorie restriction diet.
In this trail, for the first 6 months, groups were divided into alternating days of fasting at 25% of calorie intake then 125% of of baseline calories split over 3 meals.
The other groups was set a calorie restriction of 75% split over 3 meals. Then at 6 months, a maintenance phase was introduced, with calories increased by 25% in both groups.
There was no significance in differences achieved in weight loss or body composition. Nor was their significant differences in fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, or blood pressure.
But what the study did find however, was that there was a 38% drop out rate in the fasting group versus 29% in the calorie restriction group.
Pitfalls of IF
While there are numerous benefits from IF, Harvard Education suggests that it is not appropriate for everyone, as it can cause complications for
those with certain medical conditions or disordered eating.
So who is it not appropriate for?
IF in a Nutshell...
Ultimately the benefits of weight loss achieved through IF are the results of a calorie deficit, which can have subsequent metabolic, and hormonal benefits. IF hasn't been shown to be that much more significant or effective than simple calorie restriction over time.
That said, IF is a great way for some people to structure their nutrition and achieve similar results as standard calorie restriction, with bonus affects not necessarily captured in the research (which I have outlined in my experience).
I for one will be continuing with IF as and when it suits me. When it stops working for me, I'll no longer do it - and that's the important lesson, whatever you do, you have to make sure that is is sustainable and safe for you.
If you don't know who Rachel Thompson is, you need to get to know.
She is the UK Queen of Animal Flow, my coach and training buddy.
In the latest podcast episode of Cj Sends Word I get up close and personal with Rachel, A former professional dancer, now elite Animal flow coach, athlete and personal trainer. Rachel shares her personal journey, and the back ground behind her philosophy, "Do it with passion. Do it with discipline." which has led her to become one of the leading Animal Flow pioneers, and respected coaches in the UK.
Packed with pearls of wisdom, and powerful insights, this exciting thirty minute podcast will have you both entertained and give you pause for thought. You can listen [HERE]